Category Archives: 2 way radio

2 way radio

What You Could Be Missing Out On When You Don’t Look At The IC-4088SR

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Article of the Day………ok so i haven’t got an article each day, but when i get an opportunity I will post posts I find fascinating. Fortunate enough here is one of those articles that I read and needed to share. Should you enjoy it as much as me, please add one of the special social media likes, you know the one that tells everybody that you enjoyed something, rather than you sat on your arse and watched Television!

PMR446 Handheld Transceiver

Designed to meet the demands of the licence free PMR 446 service, the IC-4088SR builds on its predecessor’s functionality, features and operating performance.

Featuring a high level of flexibility, the IC-4088SR allows instant communication between members of a group in and around buildings and over short distances. This makes it the perfect tool for keeping in touch with friends, family and work colleagues whilst in close proximity to them. The applications for the PMR446 service are almost limitless and the IC-4088SR would be suitable for camping, golf, catering, use in sports centres, on building sites, catering, events management, neighbourhood watch, factories, farms etc. What’s more it is water-resistant making it ideal for rambling, trekking, or for use on inland waterways etc.

An optional external charger socket or cigarette lighter lead allows you to charge and operate the IC-4088SR allowing you to use the IC-4088SR when and whenever you like. 

The IC-4088SR has all the hallmarks of a quality product. It is well designed, easy to use and very robust. Its strong body makes it ideal for outdoor activity enthusiasts, for example. In fact the IC-4088SR is ergonomically designed and there are an absolute minimum number of switches making operation quick and intuitive. The large, easy to read LCD shows operating information at a glance with clear status icons such as ‘low battery’ and ‘timer’ that are easily recognisable. 

In addition to its ease of use and aesthetic design the IC-4088SR is packed full of communication features that provides the user with a high level of usability and convenience. Among these useful functions are a simple voice scrambler that will provide secure private communication and a handy ‘Automatic Transponder’ function which automatically warns you if the other radios are out of range. 

Other useful operating functions include a call ring function, which allows you to send a ring tone when calling another party – similar to using a mobile phone. Ten different ring types can be selected from. To ensure clear communications with other radios, you can select from 8 different radio channels and 38 different group codes, giving more than 300 different combinations to choose from. A Smart Ring function is also included which lets you know whether your call has got all the way through.

The IC-4088SR transceiver is available with charger and four rechargeable batteries. Two commercial multi-packs are also available.

 

  • Rugged construction and high performance antenna
  • External DC power jack
  • Built-in voice scrambler
  • Simple to use for everyone
  • Economical three alkaline cells
  • Splash resistant construction
  • Built-in CTCSS encoder and decoder
  • Automatic transponder system
  • Smart-ring function
  • Call-ring function
  • Power save function
  • Low battery indicator
  • Automatic power-off timer (0.5–2 hours)
  • Scan function
  • PTT hold function
  • Variable time-out-timer (1–30 minutes)

Should I Get a Two Way Radio System for my Business and, if so, What Type of Two Way Radio is Best?

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It depends on what you want to use them for. A lot of two-way radios are designed with specific tasks/uses in mind, so it depends greatly on what you need them to do.

If your application is largely workplace-orientated, then a two-way business radio will likely work best. A good all-rounder, two way business radios (available from any manufacturer), can be used for increasing safety and security levels, relaying messages and services to clients quickly and efficiently, improving employee communication and much more besides.

In addition, modern radio systems are highly customizable, that way they can better suit your business needs. You can tailor them to your workforce, customer-base, or working environment. The following is taken from IcomUK.co.uk,

“Two-way business radio is a very flexible form of communication. It can provide simple one to one communication between a small group of users or increase the number of channels so you could have one channel for everyone, one channel for management, one channel for security, one channel for cleaning and so on. You can use each channel like an intercom system that lets you call individual people or groups instead of broadcasting a message to everyone. Some radios have scanning capability so your radios will only pick up conversation for the channels you have programmed. Dependent on your needs you can build a complex radio system integrating not just radio communication but security monitoring via GPS or CCTV or coverage between groups over a wide geographical area using the internet”.

Two-way radios are also exceptionally easy to use. Training your staff to use them takes almost no time at all and their user-friendliness is a great ‘plus point’ during emergency situations.

Two way radios are also far better suited for business use than mobile phones. This list is also taken from the Icom site.

business 2 way radioWhen you want to call someone on a mobile phone at a minimum you have to press a speed dial button and wait for connection. Between the dialing and the time delay of the person on the other end answering, some time can go by (if they answer at all). With a two-way radio you simply press a button and start talking. In an emergency situation, this speed could be critical.

You can talk to multiple users at once.

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2wayradionline.co.uk provides radios with no monthly contract. You never have to worry about exceeding your allotted time like you would do with a mobile phone.

Icom radios are built to military specification which means that they will work in wet environment or even after they are dropped on concrete. Most mobile phone are not built to this standard.

Two way radios continue to work in natural disasters or major security incidents. Even if mobile phones do work, the mobile phone tower can get overloaded with everyone trying to make calls so your call may not go through.

Two way radios stay on site at the end of the day so can be used by shift or night workers.

There may be places in your business where mobile phones don’t work. Two way radios can reach all areas of your business, when repeaters are installed.

Two-way radios that are designed for business purposes are probably your best option (in this instance, at least). Depending on the size and scale of your business, it may be wise to hire a professional to help you set up your network.

 

SOURCES

http://www.icomuk.co.uk/Two_Way_Business_Radio_Buyers_Guide

CML ntros NXDN radio fast-track processor

So to carry on my run of content pieces on this website, I’ve decided to share one of our favorite content pieces this week. I used to be hesitant to add it to this site as I really didn’t want to offend the original writer, but I hope he/she is glad that I loved reading their article and planned to share it with my readers.

CML Microcircuits, a leading innovator and provider of low-power semiconductors for global wireless data and two-way radio communications markets, has released an NXDN processor with embedded Air Interface (AI) Protocol.

The CMX7131/7141 with the NXDN Function Image connects directly to the market-leading CMX994 Direct Conversion Receiver IC. Together, these devices form a formidable chip-set, enabling a fast development cycle for small, highly-integrated, multi-standard capable digital radios that will exhibit a long battery life.

The majority of the NXDN air interface physical layer (layer 1) and data link layer (layer 2) is embedded in the NXDN Function Image, plus a host of advanced features to support the complete radio system and simplify the overall radio design process.

NXDN is an FDMA digital Land Mobile Radio (LMR) open standard and has evolved to become a key narrowband technology in the LMR migration from analogue to digital. NXDN is supported by more than 25 international radio manufacturers and organisations that together form the NXDN Forum.

The new NXDN Function Image adds to the existing suite of CMX7131/7141 function images, now covering dPMR, NXDN, ARIB STD-T98, ARIB STD-T102 and legacy analogue PMR. A radio platform using the CMX7131/7141 can be switched to deliver any of these systems by uploading the appropriate Function Image. This allows radio manufacturers to take advantage of economies-of-scale by adopting a Software Defined Radio (SDR) design route, with one radio design supporting a number of different systems and markets.

The DE9944 FDMA SDR Demonstrator is also available, providing the fastest route from development through to production.

The CMX7131/CMX7141 processors and function images are available now, offering low power 3.3V operation in small VQFN/LQFP packaging.

Source – http://www.ciol.com/ciol/news/212691/cml-ntros-nxdn-radio-fast-track-processor

Private Pilots Shouldn’t Take Off Without a Backup Radio

I don’t know if you came here as you read it on social media, twitter, facebook, google +, stumble upon or anywhere else. But thank you for visiting and I trust you take pleasure in reading this as much as I did.

Those of you who follow my adventures know that I can fly to wherever there’s a communications emergency. Regular folks need a plane, and what do private pilots need? They need two-way radios, of course!

A recent story on TodaysWirelessWorld.com explained how many private pilots wouldn’t consider taking to the air without a backup radio. “Imagine what happens if an airplane’s primary radio fails in flight,” the story says. “You’re thousands of feet in the air at the controls of an expensive aircraft with no ability to monitor weather and emergency channels or communicate with control towers, ground crews, and other pilots. Getting down safely suddenly becomes more theoretical than a sure thing.”

The story goes on to review some key considerations for a pilot using a handheld aircraft radio as a backup:

Mind your power supply. “While rechargeable Lithium-Ion batteries usually have the longest battery life, you really want a rechargeable battery that will hold a charge for a very long time. Standard rechargeable batteries lose their charge quickly, but ‘low-discharge’ batteries can hold up to 70% of their charge for years on end.”

Get yourself trained. “On the ground, walk through all the steps for getting your backup radio up and running, including finding proper frequencies for nearby control towers. Also be sure to practice using your handheld in flight. Having the whole radio in your hand while working the plane’s controls is a bit more complicated than talking into a mic.”

Save your most-used frequencies. “Every radio manufacturer has its own way of saving most-used frequencies. Sometimes you’ll have to break out your user manual to figure out how to program and recall saved channels. Be sure to add the process for recalling saved channels to your drilling and training.”

That’s good advice for pilots and everyone else who needs to keep a two-radio handy in case of an emergency. A radio is a useful and versatile tool, but it’s up to us to make sure it’s ready to help us when we need it.

– See more at: http://blog.bearcom.com/2014/01/private-pilots-shouldnt-take-off-without-a-backup-radio-2/#sthash.3x2Oy4NG.dpuf

Can You Recommend The Best Communications For A University?

Your best bet, be it for general use in academic studies, health and safety concerns or simply security, would be to employ a digital two-way radio system, something like the Motorola SL4000. I’m specifically suggesting Motorola because they handle jobs like this all the time, several of which are detailed on their website.

In fact, the Motorola website details a case almost exactly like yours, where this technology was employed to great effect.

According to the site, the Cincinnati State Technical and Community College (CSTCC) was in a situation just like the one you outlined in your email. Here’s the basic issue…

“CSTCC is comprised of three campuses and over 1.3 million square feet. Until recently, the college used an all-analog system, components of which were 15 years old.  According to Raymond Mirizzi, Director of Facilities atCSTCC, “We needed to upgrade our whole communications system,” and it was vital that the entire campus be covered with a radio solution that would support very clear, consistent and secure communications”.

How a two-way radio network helped the situation is also detailed.

“The three-part campus needed a supervisory channel that would provide the flexibility for critical security officers and related personnel to communicate during times of crisis. Of course, because such emergencies can arise at any time, it was also critically important that the migration from analog to digital proceed smoothly and quickly because even brief downtime could put the campus at risk”.

There are lots of companies other than Motorola, of course, but there’s no denying that they are giants in their field, with a long history of customer satisfaction. They are something like The ‘A’ Team in that respect. Still, if your budget doesn’t quite allow for bells and whistles, there are a number of quality independent firms that could do a very good job at a slightly more reasonable rate.

The reality here is that bargains are the exception, not the rule. That’s why we’re always so happy when we get one. By far your best bet is to get an expert to design and implement your faculty’s new communications method. It needn’t be the biggest company, but you want to spend a good amount on communications, as they really do save lives. 

Walkie Talkie vs Two Way Radio?

Although the terms ‘walkie-talkie’ and ‘two-way radio’ can be used interchangeably, some minor differences between the two technologies do actually exist. In a professional context, it is best to know which device you are referring to before you refer to it (but this is substantially less important on a day-to-day level).

Essentially, a walkie-talkie is the same as a two-way radio; there is no overt difference between the two. However, because there are so many different radios on the market, a distinction has arisen. The term ‘walkie-talkie’ tends to imply a ‘hobby’ model, or an otherwise cheap radio. Conversely, the term ‘two-way radio’ tends to be more readily accepted in a business, as well as any equipment specific, context. 

Walkie-talkies were invented around the time of the Second World War and were principally used by the military. Although they came in different forms, the most common version featured a large handset, which had a long antenna protruding from it. Modern walkie-talkies, on the other hand, feature a smaller design, typically with a rugged outer casing and a short aerial. They usually operate via a PTT (Push To Talk) button and available models vary in range from cheap children’s toys to professional, military grade equipment.

Generally, walkie-talkies are limited to only a few watts of power and a relatively short signal range. To this end, radio services often use a repeater (a device that increases range and boosts signal by squashing unused frequencies) in order to improve the walkie-talkie’s operation.

For their part, two-way radios, although they are also portable hand-held transceivers (a device that can both TRANSmit and reCEIVE messages) and they also use the PTT system, are slightly different.

A two-way radio is likely to have a stronger range and a harder outer casing. This is because the term ‘two-way radio’ denotes a better class of product (usually). 

Some two-way radios are also capable of sending and receiving messages at the same time; this is called ‘full duplex’. An example would be a mobile phone, which employs two different radio frequencies at the same time. However, although a mobile phone is technically a two-way radio, the device is very different from what we understand as either a walkie-talkie or a two-way.

The most important distinction is that ‘two-way radio’ almost always refers to professional, licensed equipment, whereas ‘walkie-talkie’ more often describes unlicensed, consumer-grade radios. 

What Type Of 2 Way Radio Should A Shopping Centre Use?

The truth is that shopping centres (or ‘malls’ if we’re being American about it), can seriously improve an area’s local economy. It is basic economics really, if the supply is less than the demand, then there is profit to be made. I expect a percentage, Deepak!

OK, I’ve thought a bit about this one and, I reckon your best bet would be an affordable, yet high performance unit like a Motorola DP3400 or similar. I suggested the DP3400 because it a) it won’t bankrupt the (hypothetical) project, b) it is very versatile and c) it is exceptionally easy to use (user training takes, on average, about 20 minutes).

A DP3400 offers use of 32 channels, functions as both analogue and digital and is available in UHF or VHF versions. In short, this radio is perfect for security, health and safety or even customer service.

I’ve recently found the ‘Case Studies’ sections on the Motorola website (you can probably tell by my other pieces this month), but the DP3400 has a case that’s exactly like yours. For what its worth, here’s what they said about it.

“Digital two-way radio was chosen to provide a secure, discreet communicationsystem with no risk of transmissions being compromised by eavesdroppers. The Centre’s local Motorola Authorised Dealer demonstrated how  MOTOTRBO digital radios could provide greater coverage and improved audio clarity than analogue and enable users to make both one-to-one and group calls. The increased battery power would extend battery life by up to 40%, enabling the radios to be used throughout the entire 11-hour trading day without recharging”.

That sounds pretty good to me. In any instance, you keep dreaming and don’t let anyone discourage you. Find out what it takes to be an…um, ‘shopping centre design person’ and just go for it! 

New Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide Helps Users Take Advantage of the Latest Technologies

What would you do if i stated I had found a walkie talkie short article that isn’t only fascinating but informative as well? I knew you wouldn’t believe me, so here it is the educational, excellent and interesting editorial

All around us, the wireless world is going digital. But organizations have questions about this breakthrough technology. To provide them with answers, BearCom and Motorola Solutions teamed up to create our Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide: “Five Reasons to Migrate to Digital Two-Way Radios.”

“A ‘smart’ revolution is transforming two-way radios,” the guide begins. “Digital technology is opening the door to a host of useful web-based applications for two-way radios, even as it enhances capacity, coverage, audio quality, and battery life.”

Available as a free download from BearCom.com, the guide details how digital two-way radios offer additional functionality, greater efficiency, enhanced coverage, improved audio quality, and extended battery life compared to analog radios. It explores the capabilities and benefits of the latest radios, the differences between analog and digital technologies, and the process for making a smooth transition to digital.

“There are plenty of exciting new digital two-way radio products available,” reads the cover letter from BearCom President & CEO Jerry Denham. “This new Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide is the latest tool we’ve developed to assist organizations around the country as they harness the power of digital performance to improve their communications capabilities.”

The guide includes details on the MOTOTRBO line of digital two-way radios from Motorola Solutions and the new Motorola CP200d, which was made available through BearCom last summer. In developing the CP200d, Motorola Solutions was able to retain the simplicity and durability that have helped make the Motorola CP200 analog model popular across a wide range of industries.

The guide also answers frequently asked questions, such as:
Why should we go digital?
How are apps useful in two-way radios?
Will analog radios become extinct?
Are my analog two-way radio accessories compatible with digital models?
How can I get the best value when selecting digital two-way radios?

– See more at: http://blog.bearcom.com/2014/01/new-analog-to-digital-migration-guide-helps-users-take-advantage-of-the-latest-technologies/#sthash.hoMbIaZV.dpuf

Essential Services, Essential Technology, Radios at Oil & Gas Plants

Oil and gas are natural resources, but obtaining them isn’t as simple as planting a seed in a patch of arable land. Today, hundreds of thousands of miles of oil and gas pipeline run all over the world, sometimes covering some of the most inhospitable environments known to man.

 

Pipelines that run above ground offer many advantages to oil & gas companies. They are cheaper to build, easier to repair, far simpler to maintain and a lot safer for the environment. However, that same environment also has no qualms about wreaking havoc on the lines, neither do politically motivated saboteurs or occasional wanton vandals who commonly make their presence felt in such places. A pipeline is a complex and intricate operation, which means that in order for everything to go right, nothing can be allowed to go wrong.

 

Keeping such sites clean, safe and secure is a demanding job. If you built one in an urban city centre it would be hard enough, but placing a pipeline in an extreme environment is a job so tough that only a very few select people are cut out for it.

 

For a job like that, communication is key. It is vital that all aspects of the pipeline are monitored, kept safe and guarded by highly trained professionals. So, in order for all functional teams to stay in contact, react, if need be, to technical faults and generally keep pipeline operations running smoothly, two-way radios are needed.

 

More reliable than a mobile, less clumsy than a net connection, two-way radio technology is tried, tested and true. Durable, strong outward exteriors are perfect for unforgiving environments such as heavy snow or storms at sea, while a simple, easy to use device is always best in cases of emergency.

 

Then, there’s reliability. Two-way radios are pretty much always reliable. There’s no worrying about signal strength (unless atmospheric conditions are particularly severe) and no ambiguity as to whether of not the user has been heard and understood by the intended recipient. Signal transfer is instantaneous (or, in the case of digital radios, as good as), so you can get direct up-to-the-second information, at any time.

 

Two-way radios are a massively important factor in the steady, safe and efficient refining of natural oils and gases into vital, everyday products and services. Without two-way radios, obtaining such treasures might prove next to impossible, as well as incredibly dangerous. 

MOTOTRBO™ REMASTER YOUR WORKFORCE WITH THE RIGHT SOLUTION

The Mototrbo 2 way radio has many different uses, but it works best at communicating two or more persons between each other, be it leisure or business, long distance communication is usually vital in a number of environments. This promotional article was originally a PDF at the motorola Internet site.

HELP TEAMS WORK BETTER AND FASTER, TOGETHER

Your people are on the factory floor, at the front desk, moving across campus or around the country. Hauling freight or handling emergency repairs, MOTOTRBO connects them instantly and efficiently, everywhere they go. Continue reading MOTOTRBO™ REMASTER YOUR WORKFORCE WITH THE RIGHT SOLUTION

Inform, Entertain and Educate, Two-Way Radios in Broadcasting

The disparity between how easy it is to watch a television program and how difficult it is to make one is truly staggering.

Outdoor shoots are often rushed, always difficult and dependent on a number of factors completely outside of any Human control (principally: the weather). Managing a live broadcast outdoors is a difficult job that only highly trained professionals are properly equipped to deal with.

Mistakes can cost huge sums of money and even jobs to be lost in an instant. As a result, it is of absolutely paramount importance that an outdoor shoot runs as smoothly as possible. It is not possible to control all the variables in this equation, therefore the factors that are controllable need to be handled with a great deal of care and attention. Continue reading Inform, Entertain and Educate, Two-Way Radios in Broadcasting

Innovative or Simply Post-Modern? New Paradigms in the Study of “Radio”

Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 30 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
Etymology
The etymology of “radio” or “radiotelegraphy” reveals that it was called “wireless telegraphy”, which was shortened to “wireless” in Britain. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission, was first recorded in the word radioconductor, a description provided by the French physicist Édouard Branly in 1897. It is based on the verb to radiate .
The word “radio” also appears in a 1907 article by Lee De Forest. It was adopted by the United States Navy in 1912, to distinguish radio from several other wireless communication technologies, such as the photophone. The term became common by the time of the first commercial broadcasts in the United States in the 1920s. The term was adopted by other languages in Europe and Asia. British Commonwealth countries continued to commonly use the term “wireless” until the mid-20th century, though the magazine of the BBC in the UK has been called Radio Times ever since it was first published in the early 1920s.
In recent years the more general term “wireless” has gained renewed popularity through the rapid growth of short-range computer networking, e.g., Wireless Local Area Network, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, as well as mobile telephony, e.g., GSM and UMTS. Today, the term “radio” specifies the actual type of transceiver device or chip, whereas “wireless” refers to the lack of physical connections; one talks about radio transceivers, but another talks about wireless devices and wireless sensor networks.
Processes
Radio systems used for communications will have the following elements. With more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialized for different communications purposes.
Transmitter and modulation
Each system contains a transmitter. This consists of a source of electrical energy, producing alternating current of a desired frequency of oscillation. The transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these properties. The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a tuned resonant antenna; this structure converts the rapidly changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave that can move through free space.
Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. It
was the method used for the first audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today. “AM” is often used to refer to the mediumwave broadcast band .
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier’s frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying.
FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech . Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM.
Angle modulation alters the instantaneous phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal. It is another term for Phase modulation.

Continue reading Innovative or Simply Post-Modern? New Paradigms in the Study of “Radio”

What is Ham Radio & How Does it Work?

Ham radio (so called because its operators were originally derided as being ‘hammy’ in the 19th century, when the technology first emerged) is a term that applies to any form of amateur radio broadcasting.

 

There are designated radio frequency spectra available solely for public use. Uses range from recreation to communication and the non-commercial exchange of ideas. ‘Hams’ take advantage of these frequencies in order to transmit any number of things Continue reading What is Ham Radio & How Does it Work?

Can a Kenwood Radio be used to Communicate with a Motorola Radio?

To answer your question (that is, after all, why I’m here): It depends entirely on which models you are planning to use. For example, if you had two PMR446 variants that were both on the same band, they ought to work fine (even if one was Kenwood and the other was Motorola).

If two radios are the same basic type and set to the same channel, then I don’t personally see why they wouldn’t work. However, if they aren’t of the same type, then they probably won’t work, it’s that simple.

Two-way radio technology is both simpler than you’d think it would be and more complicated than it first appears (if that makes sense), so its always best to make sure you have access to good kit that is easy to use. Personally, (if it is at all possible for you) I’d suggest spending out a bit and getting a new set, I’ll explain why below…

Your question does incur a dangerous element, so I feel I’d better warn you. Make sure that you understand, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that your license covers the frequency you are using. For most of the frequencies you’d likely to be using in order to connect the two devices, a special license is required. Transmitting without a license is a serious crime and you could spend up to two years in prison.

As ‘Robert J’ from ‘Yahoo! Answers’, suggests, the reason it’s considered to be so serious an offence is because you can actually endanger lives by interrupting radio transmissions from ambulances or police cars. I hate to sound like a square here, but in this instance, the rules exist for a reason.

Anyway, you really need to do your homework on this one and it may actually turn out to be easier and cheaper for you to just buy a new set of radios from either Kenwood or Motorola. If you were running a business, I’d go as far as to actually recommend you take this step.

However, if you’re only using the radios for personal projects, then provided you check them out and stick to the rules, you shouldn’t have a problem.